Myśli, które uciekły mi z głowy...
Temat: Komu się udało z bakteriami: Enterococcus i Escherichia?
" />Mam nowy wynik posiewu
Escherichia coli +
niestety Staphylococcus aureus ++ (metycylinowrażliwy)
a potem to już chyba dobre informacje: Lactobacillusy ++, bardzo liczne pałeczki Doderleina, brak komórek typu clue-cells
Jutro ide do lekarza, ale czy ktoś może mnie jeszcze pocieszyć trochę?
dziś konczę 22 tc.
Temat: Zapalenie pęcherza i dróg moczowych
To z drugiego linku -
The mechanism of action of cranberry has prompted much scientific discussion. It was first hypothesized that acidification of the urine contributed to an antibacterial effect. The current proposed mechanism of action focuses primarily on cranberryĂ˘ÂÂs ability to prevent bacterial binding to host cell surface membranes. In vitro studies have observed potent inhibition of bacterial adherence of Escherichia coli4 and other gram-negative uro-pathogens.5 Cranberry has been found to specifically inhibit hemagglutination of E. coli by expression of types 1 and P adhesin6 through the component compounds fructose7 and proanthocyanidins.8
Jeśli dobrze rozumiem autorzy nie sugerują że żurawina alkalizuje mocz tylko że efekt działania antybakteryjnego żurawiny nie jest związany z zakwaszaniem moczu a ze zmniejszeniem przylegania bakterii do nabłonka dróg moczowych.
A poza tym ma także właściwości antyoksydacyjne i ma działanie antynowotworowe
Temat: Bacteria Evolution in the Lab
Bacteria make major evolutionary shift in the lab
A major evolutionary innovation has unfurled right in front of researchers' eyes. It's the first time evolution has been caught in the act of making such a rare and complex new trait.
And because the species in question is a bacterium, scientists have been able to replay history to show how this evolutionary novelty grew from the accumulation of unpredictable, chance events.
Twenty years ago, evolutionary biologist Richard Lenski of Michigan State University in East Lansing, US, took a single Escherichia coli bacterium and used its descendants to found 12 laboratory populations.
The 12 have been growing ever since, gradually accumulating mutations and evolving for more than 44,000 generations, while Lenski watches what happens.
Mostly, the patterns Lenski saw were similar in each separate population. All 12 evolved larger cells, for example, as well as faster growth rates on the glucose they were fed, and lower peak population densities.
But sometime around the 31,500th generation, something dramatic happened in just one of the populations Ă˘ÂÂ the bacteria suddenly acquired the ability to metabolise citrate, a second nutrient in their culture medium that E. coli normally cannot use.
Indeed, the inability to use citrate is one of the traits by which bacteriologists distinguish E. coli from other species. The citrate-using mutants increased in population size and diversity.
"It's the most profound change we have seen during the experiment. This was clearly something quite different for them, and it's outside what was normally considered the bounds of E. coli as a species, which makes it especially interesting," says Lenski.
By this time, Lenski calculated, enough bacterial cells had lived and died that all simple mutations must already have occurred several times over.
That meant the "citrate-plus" trait must have been something special Ă˘ÂÂ either it was a single mutation of an unusually improbable sort, a rare chromosome inversion, say, or else gaining the ability to use citrate required the accumulation of several mutations in sequence.
To find out which, Lenski turned to his freezer, where he had saved samples of each population every 500 generations. These allowed him to replay history from any starting point he chose, by reviving the bacteria and letting evolution "replay" again.
Would the same population evolve Cit+ again, he wondered, or would any of the 12 be equally likely to hit the jackpot?
Evidence of evolution
The replays showed that even when he looked at trillions of cells, only the original population re-evolved Cit+ Ă˘ÂÂ and only when he started the replay from generation 20,000 or greater. Something, he concluded, must have happened around generation 20,000 that laid the groundwork for Cit+ to later evolve.
Lenski and his colleagues are now working to identify just what that earlier change was, and how it made the Cit+ mutation possible more than 10,000 generations later.
In the meantime, the experiment stands as proof that evolution does not always lead to the best possible outcome. Instead, a chance event can sometimes open evolutionary doors for one population that remain forever closed to other populations with different histories.
Lenski's experiment is also yet another poke in the eye for anti-evolutionists, notes Jerry Coyne, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago. "The thing I like most is it says you can get these complex traits evolving by a combination of unlikely events," he says. "That's just what creationists say can't happen."
http://www.newscientist.com/channel/lif ... e-lab.html
It's so cool that they got to witness it and have proof
Temat: 16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals
16th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals Workshop Announcement:
Health Assessment of Bottlenose Dolphins in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida and Charleston, South Carolina
Chairs: Drs. Gregory D. Bossart and Patricia A. Fair
Symposium Coordinator: Dr. Juli D. Goldstein
Day/Date: Sunday December 11
Location: Manchester Grand Hyatt San Diego: Conference room TBD.
Cost: Free to all conference registrants
Summary: The Bottlenose Dolphin Health and Risk Assessment (HERA) Project was initiated in 2003 by researchers at Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service. The HERA Dolphin Project is a comprehensive, integrated, multi-disciplinary research program designed to assess overall dolphin health and environmental and anthropogenic stressors that may affect health and long-term viability. Standardized and comprehensive protocols are being used to understand dolphin health, the top-predator of coastal ecosystems in the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), FL and Charleston (CHS), SC. This study is focusing on developing tools and techniques to better assess the health of bottlenose dolphins and to identify health threats and develop linkages to possible environmental stressors. This symposium will highlight studies by multiple HERA investigators who will report on their findings from a wide range of disciplines such as emerging disease, pathology, biomarkers, contaminants, and immunology.
Tentative Agenda and List of Speakers
9:00-9:10 am Welcome/Introductions
Dr. Gregory D. Bossart, Dr. Patricia A. Fair, Dr. Juli D. Goldstein
9:10-9:25 am Overview of Dolphin Health Assessments
Dr. Teri Rowles, National Marine Fisheries
9:25-9:40 am Overview, Goal, and Objectives of HERA Dolphin Project
Dr. Patricia Fair and Dr. Gregory D. Bossart, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, SC/Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
9:40-9:55 am Integrating Bottlenose Dolphin Health and Photo-Identification Data
Jeffrey D. Adams, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, SC
9:55-10:10 am Spatial Aspects of Bottlenose Dolphin Occurrence Near Charleston, SC and in the Indian River Lagoon, FL
Dr. R.H Defran, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution & National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, SC
10:10-10:25 am Hematologic, Serum Biochemistry and Cytologic Findings From Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin Inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida
Dr. Juli D. Goldstein, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
10:25-10:40 am Evaluation of a portable clinical analyzer of the critical care blood gases and electrolytes in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins
Dr. Rene A Varela, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
10:40-10:55 am COFFEE BREAK
10:55-11:10 am Lobomycosis in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) From the Indian River Lagoon, Florida
11:10-11:25 am New Viral Findings and the Development of Seroepidemiological Screening Tests and the Corresponding Vaccines
Dr. Manuela Rehtanz and Dr. Gregory D. Bossart, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Brown Cancer Center
11:25-11:40 am Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli Found in Florida and South Carolina Wild Bottlenose Dolphins
Barbara Lyon, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, SC
11:40-11:55 pm Orogenital Neoplasia in Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)
Dr. Gregory D. Bossart, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution
11:55-1:00 pm LUNCH BREAK
1:00-1:15 pm Feeding Habits of Indian River Lagoon bottlenose dolphins assessed using stable isotope and fatty acid signature analysis
Dr. Graham Worthy, Department of Biology, University of Central Florida
1:15-1:30 pm Emerging contaminants in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Charleston Harbor, SC and the Indian River Lagoon, Fl
Magali Houde, Environmental Biology University of Guelph/National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario
1:30-1:45 pm Comparisons of trace metal contamination in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations along the southeast Atlantic coast
Hui-Chen Wang, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, SC
1:45-2:00 pm Changes in Gene Expression in the Skin-Blubber Biopsy as Measures of Chemical Exposure and Effect in the Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus
Eric Montie, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
2:00-2:15 pm Establishment of Epidermal Cell Lines Derived from the Skin of the Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus
Blake C. Ellis, Department of Neurosciences and Neuroscience Institute/Marine Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences Center, Charleston, SC
2:15-2:45 pm COFFEE BREAK
2:45-3:00 pm Genetic structure of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida
Christine Politz, Harbor Brach Oceanographic Institution
3:00-3:15 pm Development of a Dolphin cDNA Microarray
Dr. Annalaura Mancia, Marine Biomedicine and Environmental Sciences Center, Medical University of South Carolina
3:15-3:30 pm DNA Strand Breaks as Determined by the Comet Assay in Blood Samples from Dolphins Collected from Charleston Harbor(SC) and Indian River Lagoon (FL)
Dr. Richard Lee, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography
3:30-5:00 pm PANEL DISCUSSION/CLOSING REMARKS
See http://www.marinemammalogy.org/conference2005/ for conference details.